Williams Research Group


2014

311.     *Chemical Validation of the Proposed Intramolecular Diels-Alder Construction for the Assembly of the Monooxopiperazine Prenylated Indole Alkaloids of the Malbrancheamide and Paraherquamide Families. Sunderhaus, J.D.; Finefield, J.M.; McAfoos, T.J.; Tran, H.; Tsukamoto, S.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. (in preparation).

310.     *Synthesis of a New TLR4 Agonist with Unique Adjuvant Properties. Kaspar, L.; Dey, S.; Bowman, J.A.; Jangari, S.; Ireton, G.; Cochran, J.H.; Kesicki, E.; Guderian, J.; Reed, S.G.; Carter, D., Williams, R.M. (in preparation).

309.     *Studies on Taxol Biosynthesis: Preparation and Tritium Labeling of Taxadiene-2,5,10-triol and Taxadiene-2,5,9,10,13-pentaol by Reduction of Taxoids Obtained from Japanese Yew. Horiguchi, T.; Rithner, C.D.; Croteau, R.; Williams, R.M. (in preparation)

308.     *The Assembly of Click-Linked Molecules to Probe a Proposed Biosynthesis of Ecteinascidin 743 (Et-743). Christiansen, M.A.; Jimenez-Sommarribas, A.; Inai, M.; Hurney, S.E.; Rath, C.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. (in preparation)

307.     *Short, Stereocontrolled Biomimetic Total Synthesis of D,L-Spiromalbramide. White, B.; Somoza, A.D.; Hurney, S.; Sunderhaus, J.D.; Welch, T.R.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. (in preparation)

306.     *Comparative Pharmacokinetic Properties and Antitumor Activity of the Marine HDACi Largazole and Largazole Peptide Isostere. Pilon, J.L.; Clausen, D.J.; Hansen, R.; Lunghofer, P.; Rose, B.; Thamm, D.H.; Gustafson, D.; Bradner, J.E.; Williams, R.M. Molecular Cancer Therapeutics (submitted). [link]

305.      *Ecteinascidins. A Review of the Chemistry, Biology and Clinical Utility of Potent Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antitumor Antibiotics. Le, V.; Inai, M.; Williams, R.M.; Kan, T., Nat. Prod. Rep. 2014, 0000 (in press).







304.     *Awakening Dormant Tailoring Genes. Bioconversions of 6-Epi-Notoamide T. Kato, H.; Nakahara, T.; Yamaguchi, M.; Finefield, J.M.; Sunderhaus, J.D.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M.; Tsukamoto, S. J. Nat. Prod. (submitted). [link]

303.      Protein Kinase C-delta Inactivation Inhibits the Proliferation and Survival of Cancer Stem Cells in Culture and in vivo. Chen, Z.; Forman, L.W.; Williams, R.M.; Faller, D.V. BMC Cancer, 2014, 14, 90 (published on-line February 14, 2014). [link]

302.     *Synthetic Studies Towards Zetekitoxin AB: Preparation of 4,5-epi-11-Hydroxysaxitoxinol. Pearson, A.D.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2014, 0000 (in press).






301.     *Biosynthetic Pathway for Heterologous Expression of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Drug and Analogs. Sherman, D.H.; Ehrlich, G.D.; Janto, B.; Williams, R.M.; Rath, C.M. U.S. Patent No. 8,815,562 B2, August 26, 2014.

300.      Protein Kinase C is a Therapeutic Target in Malignant Melanoma with NRAS Mutation or BREF Inhibitor-Resistance. Takashima, A.; English, B.J.; Williams, R.M.; Faller, D.V. ACS Chem. Biol. 2014, 9, 1003-1014. (published on-line February 7, 2014).








299.     *Epidithiodioxopiperazines: Occurrence, Synthesis and Biogenesis. Welch, T.R.; Williams, R.M. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2014, 31, 1376-1404. (published on-line May 9, 2014).






2013

298.      *Efficient Synthesis of the Cyclopentanone Fragrances (Z)-3-(2-oxopropyl)-2-(pent-2-en-1-yl) cyclopentanone and Magnolione. Pan, G.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron 2014, 70, 276-279 (published on-line November 22, 2013).







297.     *Biosynthetic Systems Producing Fungal Indole Alkaloids. Li, S.; Anand Srinivasan, K.; Williams, R.M.; Sherman, D.H.; WO 2013/152110 A1, International Patent Application October 10, 2013. [link]

296.     *A Biosynthetic Pathway for Heterologous Expression of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Drug and Analogs. Sherman, D.H.; Ehrlich, G.D.; Janto, B.; Williams, R.M.; Rath, C.M., PCT 13/640,815, April 18, 2013. [link]

295.      *Method for Preparing Largazole Analogs and Uses Thereof. Williams, R.M.; Bradner, J.E.; Bowers, A.; Newkirk, T., Wiest, O.G., U.S. Patent No. 8,513,290 B2, August 20, 2013. [link]

294.     *Synthesis and HDAC Inhibitory Activity of Isosteric Thiazoline-Oxazole Containing Largazole Analogs. Guerra-Bubb, J.M.; Bowers, A.A.; Smith, W.B.; Paranal, R.; Estiu, G.; Wiest, O.; Bradner, J.E.; Williams, R.M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2013, 23, 6025-6028 (published on line June 18, 2013).







293.     *Synthetic Studies on Lemonomycin: Construction of the Tetracyclic Core. Jiménez-Somarribas, A.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2013, 69, 7505-7512.





292.     *Mitomycinoid Alkaloids: Mechanism of Action, Biosynthesis, Total Syntheses, and Synthetic Approaches. Bass, P.; Gubler, D.A.; Judd, T.C.; Williams, R.M. Chem. Rev. 2013, 113, 6816-6863 (published on-line May 8, 2013).







2012

291.     *Synthesis and Bioconversions of Notoamide T: A Biosynthetic Precursor to Stephacidin A and Notoamide B. Sunderhaus, J.D.; McAfoos, T.J.; Finefield, J.M.; Kato, H.; Li, S.; Tsukamoto, S.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2013, 15, 22-25. (published on-line December 12, 2012)






290.      *Honoring the 77th Birthday of Professor Ei-ichi Negishi. (Preface to Heterocycles Issue Dedicated to Prof. Ei-ichi Negishi's 77th Birthday). Williams, Robert M. Heterocycles 2012, 86 1-3. (invited article in honor of Prof. Ei-ichi Negishi) [link]

289.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Chetomin: Enantiospecific Synthesis of a Putative Late-Stage Biosynthetic Intermediate. Welch, T.R.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2012, 68, 770-773. (published on-line November 3, 2012)





288.     An Improved Synthesis of 5-Acylamino-6-oxo-2-phenyl-1(6H)-pyrimidineacetic Acid from Glycine with Readily Removable Protecting Groups. Takahashi, D.; Kashiwagi, T.; Onoye, H.; Williams, R.M.; Izawa, K.; Heterocycles, 2012, 85, 2213-2229. [link]

287.     *Methods for Preparing Largazole Analogs and Uses Thereof. Williams, R.M.; Bradner, J.E.; Bowers, A.; Newkirk, T., U.S. Patent No. 8,217,076 B2, July 10, 2012. [link]

286.     *Formal Synthesis of Hapalindole O and Synthetic Studies Towards Hapalindoles K and Ambiguine A. Rafferty, R.J.; Williams, R.M., Heterocycles 2012, 86, 219-231. (published on-line April 23, 2012; invited article in honor of Prof. Ei-ichi Negishi) [link]

285.     *Unified Total Synthesis of Fawcettimine Class Alkaloids: Fawcettimine, Fawcettidine, Lycoflexine and Lycoposerramine B.. Pan, G.; Williams, R.M. J. Org. Chem. 2012, 77, 4801-4811. (published on-line April 21, 2012)







284.     *Discussion Addendum for: Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl -Amino Acids using 4-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-5,6-Diphenylmorpholine-2-one: (R)-(N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl)allylglycine. Looper, R.E.; Williams, R.M., Org. Synth. 2012, 89, 394-403.







283.     *Comparative Analysis of the Biosynthetic Systems for Fungal Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Indole Alkaloids: The (+)/(-)-Notoamide, Paraherquamide and Malbrancheamide Pathways. Li, S.; Srinivasan, K.; Tran, H.; Yu, F.; Finefield, J.M.; Sunderhaus, J.D.; McAfoos, T.J.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M.; Sherman, D.H., Med. Chem. Comm. 2012, 3, 987-996. (published on-line April 16, 2012) [link]

282.     *The Early Stages of the Biosynthesis of Taxol: An Interim Report on the Synthesis and Identification of Early Pathway Metabolites. Guerra, J.; Croteau, R.; Williams, R.M. Nat. Prod. Rep. 2012, 29, 683-696. (published on-line May 1, 2012)







281.     *Fungal Origins of the Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Ring System of Prenylated Indole Alkaloids. Finefield, J.; Sherman, D.H.; Frisvad, J.; Williams, R.M. J. Nat. Prod. 2012, 75, 812-833. (published on-line April 15, 2012)







280.     *Enantiomeric Natural Products: Occurrence and Biogenesis. Finefield, J.; Sherman, D.H.; Kreitman, M.; Williams, R.M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 4802-4836. (published on-line May 3, 2012)















2011

279.     *Biochemical Characterization of NotB as an FAD-Dependent Oxidase in the Biosynthesis of Notoamide Indole Alkaloids. Li, S.; Finefield, J., Sunderhaus, J.D.; McAfoos, T., Williams, R.M.; Sherman, D.H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2012, 134, 788-791. (published on-line December 20, 2011)









278.     *Total Synthesis of Hapalindoles J and U. Rafferty, R.J.; Williams, R.M. J. Org. Chem. 2012, 77, 519-524. (published on line November 29, 2011)







277.     *Synthetic Studies on MPC1001: A Dipolar Cycloaddition Approach to the Pyrrolidine Ring System. Schuber, P.T.; Williams, R.M., Heterocycles 2012, 84, 1193-1207. (published on-line October 28, 2011; invited manuscript Padwa 75th) [link]

276.     *Synthetic Studies Towards MPC1001: Preparation of a β-Hydroxy-Tyrosine Derivative. Schuber, P.T.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2012, 53, 380-382. (published on-line November 22, 2011)




275.     *Study on the Biosynthesis of the Notoamides: Pinacol-type rearrangement of the Isoprenyl Unit in Deoxybrevianamide E and 6-Hydroxydeoxybrevianamide E. Tsukamoto, S.; Kato, H.; Nakamura, Y.; Umaoka, H.; Nakahara, T.; Finefield, J.M.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2011, 52, 6923-6926.





274.     Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors are Potent Inducers of Tumor Latent EBV Infection. Ghosh, S.K.; Perrine, S.P.; Williams, R.M.; Faller, D.V., Blood, 2012, 119, 1008-1017 (published on-line Dec. 7, 2011).










273.     *Meta-omic Characterization of the Marine Invertebrate Microbial Consortium that Produces the Chemotherapeutic Natural Product ET-743. Rath, C.M.; Janto, B.; Earl, J.; Ahmed, A.; Hu, F.Z.; Hiller, L.; Dahlgren, M.; Kreft, R.; Yu, F.; Wolff, J.J.; Kweon, H.K.; Christiansen, M.A.; Håkansson, K.; Williams, R.M.; Ehrlich, G.D.; Sherman, D.H., ACS Chem. Biol. 2011, 6, 1244-1256.







272.     Protein Kinase C- Inactivation Inhibits Cellular Proliferation and Decreases Survival in Human Neuroendocrine Tumors. Chen, Z.; Forman, L.W.; Miller, K.A.; English, B.; Takashima, A.; Bohacek, R.M.; Williams, R.M.; Faller, D.V. Endocrine Related Cancers 2011, 18, 759-771. [link]

271.     *Biosynthetic Studies of the Notoamides: Isotopic Synthesis of Stephacidin A and Incorporation into Notoamide B and Sclerotiamide. Finefield, J.M.; Kato, H.; Greshock, T.J.; Sherman. D.H.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2011, 15, 3802-3805.









270.     *Robert Burns Woodward's Unfinished Symphony: Organic Conducting Materials. Woodward, R.B.; Cava, M.P.; Lakshmikantham, M.V.; Hoffmann, R.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 6771-6797. [link]

269.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of the Stephacidin and Notoamide Natural Products: A Stereochemical and Genetic Conundrum. Sunderhaus, J.D.; Williams, R.M., Israel J. Chem. 2011, 3-4, 442-452. [link]

268.      *Natural Products Synthesis: Enabling Tolls to Penetrate Nature's Secrets of Biogenesis and Biomechanism. Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 4221-4259.










267.      *Studies on the Biosynthesis of the Notoamides. Synthesis of an Isotopomer of 6-Hydroxydeoxybrevianamide E and Biosynthetic Incorporation into Notoamide J. Finefield, J.; Sherman. D.H.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M. J. Org. Chem. 2011, 76, 5954-5958.







266.     *Notoamide E:  Biosynthetic incorporation into notoamides C and D in cultures of Aspergillus versicolor NRRL 35600. Finefield, J.; Greshock, T.J.; Sherman. D.H.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2011, 52, 1987-1989.






265.      *Biomimetic Synthesis of Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan: Dioxopiperazine Alkaloids. Welch. T.; Williams, R.M., chapter in Biomimetic Organic Synthesis, Wiley-VCH, Poupon, E.; Nay, B., Editors. 2011, 1, 117-148. [link]

2010

264.     Method for Preparing Largazole Analogs and Uses Thereof. Williams, R.M.; Bradner, J.E.; Bowers, A.; Newkirk, T., WO 2010009334 A1, January 21, 2010.

263.     *A Divergent Strategy for the Synthesis of Secologanin Derived Natural Products. English, B.J.; Williams, R.M. J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 7869-7876.






262.     *Synthetic Studies on Palau'amine. Approach to the Cyclopentane Core via an Asymmetric, Intramolecular [1,3]-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction. Namba, K.; Greshock, T.J. Sundermeier, U.; Li, H.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2010, 51, 6557-6559.






261.     *Synthetic Studies on the Ambiguine Family of Alkaloids: Construction of the ABCD Ring System. Rafferty, R.J.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2011, 52, 3733-3736.





260.     *Genome-based Characterization of Two Prenylation Steps in the Assembly of the Stephacidin and Notoamide Anticancer Agents in a Marine Aspergillus sp. Ding, Y.; de Wet, J.R.; Cavalcoli, J.; Li, S.; Greshock, T.J.; Miller, K.A.; Finefield, J.M.; Sunderhaus, J.D.; McAfoos, T.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M.; Sherman, D.H. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2010, 132, 12733-12740.







259.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of the Stephacidins and Notoamides. Total Synthesis of Notoamide S. McAfoos, T.; Williams, R.M. Heterocycles 2010, 82, 461-472.






258.     *Synthesis of Notoamide J. A Potentially Pivotal Intermediate in the Biosynthesis of Several Prenylated Indole Alkaloids.. Finefield, J.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2010, 75, 2785-2789.






257.     *Recent Updates and Examples of the Stille Bi-Aryl Cross-Coupling Reaction. Williams, R.M., Org. Synth. 2011, 88, 197-201.






256.     Methods to Characterize the Effect of DNA-Modifying Compounds on Nucleosomal DNA. Subramanian, V.; Williams, R.M.; Boger, D.L.; Luger, K. Methods in Molecular Biology, 2010, 613, 173-192. [link]

2009

255.     *Synthetic Approaches to the Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Ring System Common to the Paraherquamides, Stephacidins and Related Prenylated Indole Alkaloids. Miller, K.A.; Williams, R.M., Chem. Soc. Rev. 2009, 38, 3160-3174.








254.     *Discovery, Biological Activity, Synthesis and Potential Therapeutic Utility of Naturally Occurring Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors. Bowers, A.A.; Newkirk, T.; Williams, R.M., Natural Product Rep. 2009, 26, 1293-1320.








253.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of the Core of AMPTD, the Key Amino Acid of Microsclerodermins F-I. Burnett, C.M.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2009, 50, 5449-5451.




252.     *New Tricks in Amino Acid Synthesis: Applications to Complex Natural Products. ACS Symposium Book Series. Soloshonok, V.A.; Izawa, K., Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., Burnett, C.M.; Williams, R.M. 2009, Chapter 26, 420-442. [link]

251.     *Toward Palau'amine; Hg(OTf)2-Catalyzed  Synthesis of the Cyclopentane Core. Namba, K.; Kaihara, Y.; Yamamoto, H.; Imagawa, H.; Tanino, K.; Williams, R.M.; Nishizawa, M. Chem. Eur. J. 2009, 6560-6563.






250.      *Synthetic Studies Towards the Mitomycins: Construction of the Tetracyclic Core via a Reductive Aminocyclization Reaction. Gubler, D.A.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2009, 50, 4265-4267.




249.     *(3R,7aS)-3-(Trichloromethyl)tetrahydropyrrolo[1,2-c]oxazol-1(3H)-one: An Air and Moisture Stable Reagent for the Synthesis of Optically Active -Branched Prolines. Artman, G.D.; Rafferty, R.J.; Williams, R.M., Org. Synth. 2009, 86, 262-273. [link]

248.     *Synthesis of (+/-)-Oleocanthal via a Tandem Intramolecular Michael Cyclization-HWE Olefination. English, B.J.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2009, 50, 2713-2715.




247.     *Asymmetric, Total Syntheses of (+)- and (-)-Versicolamide B and Biosynthetic Implications. Miller, K.A.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M. Nature Chemistry 2009, 1, 63-68. [link]

246.     *Isolation of Notoamide E, a Key Precursor in the Biosynthesis of Prenylated Indole Alkaloids in a Marine-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus sp. Tsukamoto, S.; Kato, H.; Greshock, T.J.; Hirota, H.; Ohta, T.; Williams, R.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 3834-3835. [link]

245.     *Isolation of Antipodal (-)-Versicolamide B and Notoamides L-N from a Marine-Derived Aspergillus sp. Tsukamoto, S.; Kawabata, T.; Kato, H.; Greshock, T.J.; Hirota, H.; Ohta, T.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 1297-1300.






244.     *Synthesis and Histone Deacetylase Inhibitory Activity of Largazole Analogs: Alteration of the Zinc-Binding Domain and Macrocyclic Scaffold Bowers, A.A.; West, N.; Newkirk, T.; Troutman-Youngman, A.E.; Schreiber, S.L.; Wiest, O.; Bradner, J.E.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 1301-1304.







243.     *Synthesis and Conformation-Activity Relationships of the Peptide Isosteres of FK228 and Largazole. Bowers, A.A.; Greshock, T.J.; West, N.; Estiu, G.; Schreiber, S.L.; Wiest, O.; Williams, R.M. Bradner, J.E. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2009, 131, 2900-2905.








242.     *Synthesis of Potential Early-Stage Intermediates in the Biosynthesis of the Antitumor Antibiotics FR-900482 and Mitomycin C. Chamberland, S.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2009, 11, 791-794.








2008

241.     *Foreword to Special Issue on Amino Acids. Williams, R.M., Tet: Asymm. 2008, 19, 2753.


240.     *A Diastereoselective Intramolecular Pauson-Khand Approach for Construction of the BC Ring System in Tuberostemoninol. Jia, X.; Williams, R.M. Tet: Asymm. 2008, 19, 2901-2906.





239.     *Calmodulin Inhibitory Activity of the Malbrancheamides and Various Analogs. Miller, K.A.; Figueroa, M.; Valente, M.W.N.; Greshock, T.J.; Mata. R.; Williams, R.M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2008, 18, 6479-6481.





238.     *Pre-malbrancheamide: Synthesis, Isotopic Labeling, Biosynthetic Incorporation, and Detection in Cultures of Malbranchea aurantiaca. Ding, Y.; Greshock, T.J.; Miller, K. Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 4863-4866.






237.      *Studies on Paraherquamide Biosynthesis: Synthesis of Deuterium-Labeled 7-Hydroxy-Pre-Paraherquamide, a Putative Precursor of Paraherquamides A, E & F. Sommer, K.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2009, 65, 3246-3260. (published on-line September 11, 2008)





236.     *Detection of VM55599 and Pre-paraherquamide from Aspergillus Japonicus and Penicillium fellutanum: Biosynthetic Implications. Ding, Y.; Gruschow, S.; Greshock, T.J.; Finefield, J.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M., J. Nat. Prod. 2008, 71, 1574-1578.






235.     *Studies on Taxol Biosynthesis. Preparation and Tritium Labeling of Biosynthetic Intermediates by Deoxygenation of a Taxadiene Tetra-acetate Obtained from Japanese Yew. Tohru Horiguchi, T.; Rithner, C.D.; Croteau, R.; Williams, R.M., J. Labeled Cmpd. & Radiopharm. 2008, 51, 325-328. [link]

234.     *Total Synthesis and Biological Mode of Action of Largazole: A Potent Class I Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor. Bowers, A.; West, N.; Taunton, J.; Schreiber, S.L.; Bradner, J.E.; Williams, R.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2008, 130, 11219-11222.







233.     *Synthetic Studies on Et-743. Assembly of the Pentacycle and a Formal Total Synthesis of Et-743. Fishlock, D.; Williams, R.M. J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 9594-9600.







232.     *Synthetic Studies Towards Paraherquamides E & F and Related 13C-labeled Putative Biosynthetic Intermediates: Stereocontrolled Synthesis of the α-Alkyl-β-Methylproline Ring System. Sommer, K.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron 2008, 64, 7106-7111.





231.     Molecular Analysis of A 4-Dimethylallyltryptophan Synthase from Malbranchea aurantiaca. Ding, Y.; Williams, R.M.; Sherman, D.H., J. Biol. Chem. 2008, 283, 16068-16076. [link]

230.     *Studies on Taxol Biosynthesis. Preparation of Taxadiene-diol- and triol- Derivatives by Deoxygenation of Taxusin. Horiguchi, T.; Li, H.; Croteau, R.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2008, 64, 6561-6567.





229.     *Biomimetic Total Synthesis of Malbrancheamide and Malbrancheamide B. Miller, K.A.; Welch, T.R.; Greshock, T.J.; Ding, Y.; Sherman, D.H.; Williams, R.M. J. Org. Chem. 2008, 73, 3116-3119.






228.     *Isolation, Structure Elucidation, and Biomimetic Total Synthesis of Versicolamide B and the Isolation of Antipodal (-)-Stephacidin A and (+)-Notoamide B from Aspergillus versicolor. Greshock, T.J.; Grubbs, A.W.; Jiao, P.; Wicklow, D.T.; Gloer, J.B.; Williams, R.M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 3573-3577.






227.     *Rabe Rest in Peace: Confirmation of the Rabe-Kindler Conversion of d-Quinotoxine to Quinine. Experimental Affirmation of the Woodward-Doering Formal Total Synthesis of Quinine. Smith, A.; Williams, R.M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 1736-1740.






226.     *Improved Total Synthesis of the Potent HDAC Inhibitor FK228 (FR-901228). Johns, D.M.; Greshock, T.J.; Noguchi, Y.; Williams, R.M., Org. Lett. 2008, 10, 613-616.






225.     *Diphenyloxazinones: Versatile Templates for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Amino Acids, Peptide Isosteres and Natural Products. Burnett, C.; Williams, R.M., Strategies and Tactics in Organic Synthesis 2008 Vol.7, Chapter 8, pp 268-327. [link]

2007

224.      *Preface to Heterocycles Issue Dedicated to Prof. Yoshito Kishi's 70th Birthday. Williams, Robert M. Heterocycles 2007, 72 1-3. [link]

223.     *Synthetic and Biosynthetic Studies on FR900482 and Mitomycin C. An Efficient and Stereoselective Hydroxymethylation of an Advanced Benzazocane Intermediate. Namiki, H.; Chamberland, S.; Gubler, D.A.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 5341-5344.






222.     *Improved Biomimetic Total Synthesis of d,l-Stephacidin A. Greshock, T.J.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2007, 9, 4255-4258.






221.     *Concise, Biomimetic Total Synthesis of Marcfortine C. Greshock, T.J.; Grubbs, A.W.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2007, 63, 6124-6130.





220.     *Effects of Photo-chemically Activated Alkylating Agents of the FR900482 Family on Chromatin. Subramanian, V.; Ducept, P.; Williams, R.M.; Luger, K. Chem. Biol. 2007, 14, 553-563. [link]

219.     *Regioselectivity of Pictet-Spengler Cyclization Reactions to Construct the Pentacyclic Frameworks of the Ecteinascidin-Saframycin Class of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antitumor Antibiotics. Vincent, G.; Lane, J.W.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48, 3719-3722.






218.     *Concise, Asymmetric, Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of Stephacidins A,B and Notoamide B. Artman, G.D.; Grubbs, A.W.; Williams, R.M. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2007, 129, 6336-6342.







217.     *Formation of the C3-C4 Unsaturated Framework of Cribrostatin 4 via DEAD-Mediated Oxidation of an Allylic Tertiary Amine. Vincent, G.; Chen, Y.; Lane, J.W.; Williams, R.M. Heterocycles 2007, 72, 385-398.






216.     *Chiral Lactones. Onishi, T.; Williams, R.M. U.S. Patent No. 7,173,141 B2, February 6, 2007.

215.     *A Concise, Biomimetic Total Synthesis of Stephacidin A and Notoamide B. Greshock, T.J.; Grubbs, A.W.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 2262-2265.






214.     *A Concise Total Synthesis of the Notoamides C and D. Grubbs, A.W.; Artman III, G.D.; Tsukamoto, S.; Williams, R.M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 2257-2261.






213.     Notoamides A-D: Prenylated Indole Alkaloids Isolated from a Marine-derived Fungus, Aspergillus sp. Kato, H.; Yoshida, T.; Tokue, T.; Nojiri, Y.; Hirota, H.; Ohta, T.; Williams, R.M.; Tsukamoto, S. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 2254-2256.






212.     *Coupling of Activated Esters to Gramines in the Presence of Ethyl Propiolate Under Mild Conditions. Jones, D.T.; Artman III, G.D.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48, 1291-1294.





211.     *Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-Cribrostatin 4 (Renieramycin H). Vincent, G.; Williams, R.M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2007, 46, 1517-1520.






210.     *Administering Cultured Taxus Cells with Early Precursors Reveals Bifurcations in the Taxoid Biosynthetic Pathway. Ketchum, R.E.B.; Horiguchi, T.; Qiu, D.; Williams, R.M.; Croteau, R.B. Phytochem. 2007, 68, 335-341.






2006

209.     *The Concise and Versatile Synthesis of epi-Malbrancheamide and Structurally Related Analogs. Valente, M.W.N.; Williams, R.M. Heterocycles 2006, 70, 249-259.






208.     *Synthesis of Highly Functionalized -Unsaturated Amino Acids. Chen, S.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2006, 62, 11572-11579.






207.     *Synthetic Studies on Quinine: Quinuclidine Construction via a Ketone Enolate-directed Regio- and Diastereoselective Allylic Alkylation. Johns, D.M.; Mori, M.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 4051-4054.






206.     *Synthetic Studies on ET743. Concise, Asymmetric, Stereocontrolled Construction of the Tetrahydroisoquinoline Core via Radical Cyclization on a Glyoxalimine. Fishlock, D.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2006, 8, 3299-3301.






205.     *Antitumor Activity of Tetrahydroisoquinoline Analogues 3-epi-Jorumycin and 3-epi-Renieramycin G. Lane, J.W.; Estevez, A.; Mortara, K.; Callan, O.; Spencer, J.R.; Williams, R.M. Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett. 2006, 16, 3180-3183.






204.     *Syntheses of the Cylindrospermopsin Alkaloids. Looper, R.E.; Runnegar, M.T.C.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron 2006, 62, 4549-4562.






203.     *A Concise Synthesis of Brevianamide B via a Biomimetically-inspired IMDA Construction. Adams, L.A.; Valente, M.W.N.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Symposium-in-Print. 2006, 62, 5195-5200.

202.     *Improved Synthesis by Mitsunobu Cyclization of the Core Benzazocine Ring Precursor to FR900482 and the Mitomycins. Williams, R.M.; Ducept, P; Gubler, D.A., Heterocycles, 2006, 67, 597-619.






2005

201.     *Concise Syntheses of the 1,7-dihydropyrano[2,3-g]indole Ring System of the Stephacidins, Paraherquamides and Norgeamides. Artman, G. D.; Grubbs, A.W.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2005, 46, 9013-9016.






200.     Remarkable Diastereomeric Rearrangement of an -Acyloxy -ketosulifide to an -Acyloxy Thioester: A Novel Approach to the Synthesis of Optically Active (2S,3S) -Amino -Hydroxy Acids. Suzuki, T.; Honda, Y.; Izawa, K.; Williams, R.M. J. Org. Chem. 2005, 70, 7317-7323.






199.     *Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Jorumycin, Renieramycin G, 3-epi-Jorumycin and 3-epi-Renieramycin G. Lane, J.W.; Chen, Y.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2005, 127, 12684-12690.






198.     *Synthesis of the Putative Structure of 7-Deoxycylindrospermopsin: C7-Oxygenation is not Required for the Inhibition of Protein Synthesis. Looper, R.E.; Runnegar, M.T.C.; Williams, R.M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2005, 44, 3879-3881.






197.     *An Improved Synthesis of Optically Pure 4-Boc-5,6-Diphenylmorpholin-2-one and 4-Cbz-5,6-Diphenylmorpholin-2-one. Dastlik, K.A.; Sundermeier, U.; Johns, D.M.; Chen, Y.; Williams, R.M. Syn. Lett. 2005, 693-696. [link]

2004

196.     *A Concise Asymmetric Synthesis of the ADE Fragment of Nakadomarin A. Ahrendt, K.A.; Williams, R.M. Org. Lett. 2004, 6, 4539-4541.






195.      *A Concise Asymmetric Synthesis of the Marine Hepatotoxin 7-Epi-cylindrospermopsin. Looper, R.E.; Williams, R.M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2004, 43, 2930-2933.






194.     *Concise, Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Spirotryprostatin A. Onishi, T.; Sebahar, P.R.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron 2004, 60, 9503-9515.






193.     *Concise Synthesis of the Core Bicyclo[2.2.2]diazaoctane Ring Common to Asperparaline, Paraherquamide and Stephacidin Alkaloids. Adams, L.A.; Gray, C.R.; Williams, R.M. Tetrahedron Lett. 2004, 45, 4489-4493.






192.     *Total Synthesis of the TMC-95A/B Proteasome Inhibitors. Albrecht, B.; Williams, R.M. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2004, 101, 11949-11954.






191.     *A Concise Total Synthesis of (+)-FR900482 and (+)-FR66979. Judd, T.C.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2004, 69, 2825-2830.






190.     *Cytochrome P450 Taxadiene 5α-Hydroxylase, a Mechanistically Unusual Monooxygenase Catalyzing the First Oxygenation Step of Taxol Biosynthesis. Jennewein, S.; Long, R.M.; Williams, R.M.; Croteau, R., Chem. Biol. 2004, 11, 379-387.






2003

189.     Design of Bioactive Peptides Based on Immunoglobulin Structure. Weiner, David B.; Williams, Robert M.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Williams, William V.; Greene, Mark I.; EP 1310557A1, May 14, 2003.

188.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Asperparaline A. Origin of the Spiro-succinimide Moiety. Gray, C.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 14692-14693.






187.     *Interstrand Cross-linking of DNA by FK-317 and Its Deacetylated Metabolites FR70496 and FR157471. Ducept, P.; Williams, R.M., Biochemistry 2003, 42, 14696-14701. [link]

186.      *Asymmetric, Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of Paraherquamide A. Williams, R.M.; Cao, J.; Tsujishima, H., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 12172-12178.






185.     *Concise Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Spirotryprostatin A. Onishi, T.; Sebahar, P.R.; Williams, R.M., Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 3135-3137.






184.     *Lipase TL®-Mediated Kinetic Resolution of 5-Benzyloxy-1-tert-butyldimethylsilyloxy-2-pentanol in Low Temperature: Concise Asymmetric Synthesis of Both Enantiomers of Piperazic Acid Derivative. Aoyagi, Y.; Saitoh, Y.; Ueno, T.; Horiguchi, M.; Takeya, K.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 6899-6904.






183.     *Taxus Metabolomics: Methyl Jasmonate Preferentially Induces Production of Taxoids Oxygenated at C-13 in Taxus x media Cell Cultures. Ketchum, R.E.B.; Rithner, C.D.; Qiu, D.; You Sun Kim, Y.S.; Williams, R.M.; Croteau R.B., Phytochem. 2003, 62, 901-909.






182.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of (2S, 3R)-Capreomycidine and the Total Synthesis of Capreomycin IB.  125, 8561, D.E.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2003, 125, 8561-8565.






181.     *Chemistry and Biology of Biosynthetic Diels-Alder Reactions. Stocking, E., Williams, R.M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2003, 42, 3078-3115. [link]

180.     Taxoid Metabolism: Taxoid 14-Hydroxylase is a Cytochrome P450-Dependent Monooxygenase. Jennewein, S.; Rithner, C.D.; Williams, R.M.; Croteau, R., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2003, 413, 262-270.






179.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Paraherquamide A and VM99955. A Theoretical Study for the Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cycloaddition. Domingo, L.R.; Zaragozá, R.J.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2003, 68, 2895-2902.






178.     *Synthetic Studies on Ecteinascidin 743: Asymmetric Synthesis of the Versatile Amino Acid Component. Jin, W.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2003, 44, 4635-4639.






177.      *Synthetic Studies on Ecteinascidin-743: Constructing a Versatile Pentacyclic Intermediate for the Synthesis of Ecteinascidins & Saframycins. Jin, W.; Metobo, S.; Williams, R.M., Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 2095-2098.






176.     *Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl α-Amino Acids Using (tert-Butoxy)Carbonyl-2,3-Diphenylmorpholin-6-one. Preparation of (R)-Allylglycine. Williams, R.M.; Sinclair, P.J.; DeMong, D.E., Org. Synth. 2003, 80, 31-37.






175.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of N-tert-Butoxycarbonyl -Amino Acids.  Synthesis of (5S, 6R)- and (5R, 6S)-4-tert-Butoxycarbonyl-2,3-Diphenylmorpholin -6-one. Williams, R.M.; Sinclair, P.J.; DeMong, D.; Chen, D.; Zhai, D., Org. Synth. 2003, 80, 18-30.






174.     *Paraherquamides, Brevianamides and Asperparaline: Laboratory Synthesis and Biosynthesis. An Interim Report. Cox, R.J.; Williams, R.M., Acc. Chem. Res. 2003, 36, 127-139. [link]

173.     *A Concise Formal Total Synthesis of TMC-95A/B Proteasome Inhibitors. Albrecht, B.; Williams, R.M., Org. Lett. 2003, 5, 197-200.






172.     *Studies on Taxol Biosynthesis. Preparation of 2, 10-dihydroxy Taxadien-5-yl Acetate Derivatives by Deoxygenation of a Taxadiene Tetra-acetate Obtained from Japanese Yew. Horiguchi, T.; Rithner, C.D.; Croteau, R.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron 2003, 59, 267-273.






2002

171.     Biologically Active Compounds and Methods of Constructing and Using the Same; Greene, Mark I.; Williams, William V.; Weiner, David B.; Cohen, Jeffrey A.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Williams, Robert M.; U.S. Patent No. 6,372,884 B1, April 16, 2002. [link]

170.     *Concise Enantioselective Synthesis of (+)-FR66979 and (+)-FR900482: DMDO-Mediated Construction of the Hydroxylamine Hemi-ketal. Judd, T.; Williams, R.M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed., 2002, 41, 4683-4685.






169.     *Synthesis and DNA Cross-linking of a Phototriggered FR900482 Mitosene Progenitor. Judd, T.; Williams, R.M., Org. Lett. 2002, 4, 3711-3714.






168.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-Negamycin. Jain, R.P.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 6361-6365.






167.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of Spirooxindole and 3,4 Dehydro-Proline Derivatives via Asymmetric Azomethine Ylide [1,3]-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions. Sebahar, P.; Williams, R.M., Heterocycles 2002, 58, 563-575.

166.     *Studies on Taxol Biosynthesis. Preparation of Taxa-4(20), 11(12)-dien-5-acetoxy-10-ol by Deoxygenation of a Taxadiene Tetra-acetate Obtained from Japanese Yew. Horiguchi, T.; Rithner, C.D.; Croteau, R.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2002, 67, 4901-4903.






165.     *Asymmetric, Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-Spirotryprostatin B via a Diastereoselective Azomethine Ylid [1,3]-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reaction. Sebahar, P.R.; Osada, H.; Usui, T.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron (Symposium-in-Print) 2002, 58, 6311-6322. [link]

164.     *The Synthesis and Biosynthesis of the Paraherquamides: An Intriguing Story of the Biological Diels-Alder Construction. Williams, R.M., Chem. Pharm. Bull. 2002, 50, 711-740 (invited review). [link]

163.     *Chemistry and Biology of the Tetrahydroisoquinoline Antitumor Antibiotics. Scott, J.D.; Williams, R.M., Chem. Rev. 2002, 102, 1669-1730.[link]

162.      *DNA Interstrand Cross-link Formation by Reductive Activation of Dehydropyrrolizidine Progenitors. Tepe, J.J.; Kosogof, C.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron 2002, 58, 3553-3559.






161.      *The First Asymmetric Synthesis of (2S)- and (2R)-Amino-3,3-Dimethoxypropanoic Acid. DeMong, D.E.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2002, 43, 2355-2357.




160.      *Synthetic Studies Towards Paraherquamide F: Synthesis of the 1,7-Dihydropyrano[2,3-g]indole Ring System. Cox, R.J.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2002, 43, 2149-2152.






159.     *Total Synthesis of (-)-Tetrazomine. Determination of the Stereochemistry of Tetrazomine and the Synthesis and Biological Activity of Tetrazomine Analogs. Williams, R.M.; Scott, J.D., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 2951-2956.






158.     *Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (-)-VM55599: Establishment of the Absolute Stereochemistry and Biogenetic Implications. Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2002, 124, 2556-2559.






157.     *Differential Effects of FR900482 and FK317 on Apoptosis, IL-2 Gene Expression and Induction of Vascular Leak Syndrome. Beckerbauer, L.; Tepe, J.J.; Eastman, R.A.; Mixter, P.; Williams, R.M.; Reeves, R., Chem. Biol. 2002, 9, 427-441.






2001

156.     *Taxol Biosynthesis: Taxane 13α-Hydroxylase is a Cytochrome P450-Dependent Monooxygenase. Jennewein, S.; Rithner, C.D.; Williams, R.M.; Croteau, R., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2001, 98, 13595-13600.
















155.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of (+)-Hypusine. Jain, R.P.; Albrecht, B.K.; DeMong, D.E.; Williams, R.M., Org. Lett. 2001, 3, 4287-4289.






154.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of [2,3-13C2, 15N]-4-Benzyloxy-5,6-diphenyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-4H-oxazine-2-one via Lipase TL®-Mediated Kinetic Resolution of Benzoin: General Procedure for the Synthesis of [2,3-13C2, 15N]-L-Alanine. Aoyagi, Y.; Iijima, A.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2001, 66, 8010-8014.






153.     *Taxol Biosynthesis: Differential Transformations of Taxadien-5-ol and Its Acetate Ester by Cytochrome P 450 Hydroxylases from Taxus Suspension Cells. Wheeler, A.L.; Long, R.M.; Ketchum, R.E.B.; Rithner, C.; Williams R.M.; Croteau, R., Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 2001, 390, 265-278. [link]

152.     *DNA Cross-linking by a Phototriggered Pyrrolic Progenitor Developed from Monocrotaline. Kosogof, C.; Tepe, J.J.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 6641-6643.






151.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Paraherquamide: Construction of the Amino Acid Framework. Stocking, E.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Unkefer, C.J.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron. 2001, 57, 5303-5320.






150.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of (R)-(-)-Carnitine. Jain, R.P.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 4437-4440.






149.      *The Asymmetric Synthesis of (2S,3R)-Capreomycidine. DeMong, D.E.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 3529-3532.






148.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of (S)-(+)-Carnitine and Analogs. Jain, R.P.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron (Symposium-in-Print), 2001, 57, 6505-6509.






147.     *Stereocontrolled Asymmetric Synthesis of -Hydroxy--Amino Acids. A Stereodivergent Approach. Aoyagi, Y.; Jain, R.P.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3472-3477. [link]

146.     *Entry into the Bi-aryl Moiety of the TMC-95 Proteosome Inhibitors via the Stille Protocol. Albrecht, B.K.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 2755-2757.






145.     *Total Synthesis of (-)-Tetrazomine and Determination of Its Stereochemistry. Scott, J.D.; Williams, R.M. Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2001, 40, 1463-1465.






144.     *Molecular Cloning of a Cytochrome P450 Taxane 10-beta-Hydroxylase cDNA from Taxus and Functional Expression in Yeast. Schoendorf, A.; C. Rithner, C.; Williams R.M.; Croteau, R., Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 2001, 98, 1501-1506.










143.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Paraherquamide: Concerning the Mechanism of Oxidative Cyclization of L-Isoleucine to-Methylproline. Stocking, E.M.; Martinez, R.A.; Silks, L.A.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001, 123, 3391-3392. [link]

142.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Paraherquamide. Synthesis and Incorporation of a Hexacyclic Indole Derivative as an Advanced Metabolite. Stocking, E.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2001, 40, 1296-1298.






141.     *Sequential Staudinger/Pictet-Spengler Cyclization Reactions for the Construction of Densely Functionalized Tetrahydroisoquinolines. Herberich, B.; Vazquez, A.; Kinugawa, M.; Jin, W.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 543-546.






140.     *Construction of the A-ring of Cylindrospermopsin via an Intramolecular Oxazinone-N-oxide Dipolar Cycloaddition. Looper, R.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 769-771.






139.      *An Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of (2S, 3S)--Hydroxyornithine. DeMong, D.E.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2001, 42, 183-185.






2000

138.     *Antibiotic for Methicillin Resistant Bacteria. Williams, R.M.; Yuan, C., U.S. Patent No. 6,162,925, December 19, 2000. [link]

137.     *Antibiotic for Methicillin Resistant Bacteria. Williams, R.M.; Yuan, C., U.S. Patent No. 6,110,925, August 29, 2000. [link]

136.      *Lipase TL®-Mediated Kinetic Resolution of Benzoin: Facile Synthesis of (1R, 2S)-erythro-2-Amino-1,2-diphenylethanol. Aoyagi, Y.; Agata, N.; Shibata, N.; Horiguchi, M.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2000, 41, 10159-10162.






135.      *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Taxol. Synthesis of Taxa-4(20), 11(12)-dien-2, 5-diol. Vazquez, A.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem. 2000, 65, 7865-7869.






134.     *Intramolecular Proton Transfer in the Cyclization of Geranylgeranyl Diphosphate to the Taxadiene Precursor of Taxol Catalyzed by Recombinant Taxadiene Synthase. Williams, D.C.; Caroll, B.J.; Jin, Q.; Rithner, C.D.; Lenger, S.R.; Floss, H.G.; Coates, R.A.; Williams, R.M.; Croteau, R., Chem. Biol. 2000, 7, 969-977.








133.     *Synthetic Studies on Tetrazomine: Lipase PS Resolution of Racemic cis-β-Hydroxypipecolic Acid. Scott, J.D.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 2000, 41, 8413-8416.






132.     *FR900482 Class of Anti-tumor Drugs Cross-links Oncoprotein HMG I/Y to DNA in Vivo. Beckerbauer, L.; Tepe, J.; Cullison J.; Reeves, R.; Williams, R.M., Chem. Biol. 2000, 7, 805-812. [link]

131.      *A Synthetic Model for the [4+2] Cycloaddition in the Biosynthesis of the Brevianamides, Paraherquamides, and Related Compounds. Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M.; Marco, J.A.; López-Sánchez, J.M.; González, F.; Martínez, M.E.; Sancenón, F., Tetrahedron 2000, 56, 6345-6358.













130.     *Synthesis of (S,S)- and (R,R)- 2-Amino-3-methylaminobutanoic Acid (AMBA). Hennings, D.D.; Williams, R.M., Synthesis 2000, 1310-1314. [link]

129.     *Reverse Prenyl Transferases Exhibit Poor Facial Discrimination in the Biosyntheses of Paraherquamide, Brevianamide and Austamide. Stocking E.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 9089-9098. [link]

128.     *Synthesis and Evaluation of Microtubule Assembly Inhibition and Cytotoxicity of Prenylated Derivatives of cyclo-L-Trp-L-Pro. Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Stocking, E.M.; Usui, T.; Osada, H.; Williams, R.M., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2000, 8, 2407-2415.













127.     *A Synthesis of 3´,5´-Dideoxy-5´-Aminouridine. Bender, D.M.; Hennings, D.D.; Williams, R.M., Synthesis 2000, 399-402. [link]

126.      *Asymmetric, Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of Paraherquamide A. Williams, R.M.; Cao, J.; Tsujishima. H., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2000, 39, 2540-2544. [link]

125.      *Observations on the Covalent Cross-Linking of the Binding Domain (BD) of the High Mobility Group I/Y (HMG I/Y) Proteins to DNA by FR66979. Rajski, S.R.; Williams, R.M., Bioorg. Med. Chem. 2000, 8, 1331-1342.






124.      *The Asymmetric Total Synthesis of (+)- and (-)-Spirotryprostatin B. Sebahar, P.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 5666-5667. [link]

123.      *Biosynthesis of Prenylated Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan. Williams, R.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Stocking, E., in Topics in Current Chemistry, Volume on Biosynthesis-Terpenes and Alkaloids, Leeper, F.; Vederas, J.C., Eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000, 209, 97-173. [link]

122.     *Synthesis of a Netropsin Conjugate of a Water-Soluble Epi-quinocarcin Analog: The Importance of Stereochemistry at Nitrogen. Herberich, B.; Scott, J.D.; Williams, R.M., Bioorg. Med. Chem., 2000, 8, 523-532.






121.     *Synthesis of Stable and Radioisotopomers of Taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene, Taxa-4(20),11(12)-diene and Taxa-4(20),11(12)-dien-5--ol. Early Intermediates in Taxol Biosynthesis. Rubenstein, S. M.; Vazquez, A.; Williams, R.M., J. Labeled Cmpd & Radiopharm. 2000, 43, 481-491. [link]

120.     *Total Synthesis of VM55599. Utilization of an Intramolecular Diels-Alder Cycloaddition of Potential Biogenetic Relevance. Stocking, E.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2000, 122, 1675-1683. [link]

119.     *Synthesis of the First Photo-triggered Pro-Mitosene Based on FR-900482. Williams, R.M.; Rollins, S.B.; Judd, T.C., Tetrahedron, 2000, 56, 521-532.






1999

118.     *Reductive Activation of a Hydroxylamine Hemi-acetal Derivative of Dehydromonocrotaline. The First Reductively Activated Pyrrolizidine Alkaloid Capable of Cross-linking DNA. Tepe, J.J.; Williams, R.M., Angew. Chemie Int. Ed Engl. 1999, 38, 3501-3503. [link]

117.      *Synthetic Studies on Asperparaline A. Synthesis of the Spriosuccinimide Ring System. Gonzalez, F.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 1999, 40, 4519-4522.






116.     *DNA Cross-Linking by a Phototriggered Dehydromonocrotaline Progenitor. Williams, R.M.; Tepe, J., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1999, 121, 2951-2955. [link]

115.     *Reverse versus Normal Prenyl Transferases in Paraherquamide Biosynthesis Exhibit Distinct Facial Selectivities. Stocking, E.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 1999, 38, 786-789. [link]

114.      *Asymmetric Syntheses of Unnatural Amino Acids and Hydroxyethylene Peptide Isosteres. Williams, R.M., Humana Press, Peptidomimetics Protocols, Kazmierski, W., Ed., Totowa, 1999, Vol. 23, Chapter 19, pp. 339-356. [link]

1998

113.     *DNA Interstrand Cross-Linking Agents as Antitumor Drugs. Rajski, S.R.; Williams, R.M., Chem. Rev. 1998, 98, 2723-2796. [link]

112.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of 1-BOC-3- and 4-Hydroxypyrrolidines. Aoyagi, Y.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron, 1998, 54, 13045-13058.






111.     *DNA Interstrand Cross-Link Formation Induced by Bioxalomycin 2. Williams, R.M.; Herberich, B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 10272-10273. [link]

110.     *Biomimetic Diels-Alder Cyclizations for the Construction of the Brevianamide, Paraherquamide, Sclerotamide, Asperparaline and VM55599 Ring Systems. Williams, R.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Sancenón, F.; Marco, J.A.; Halligan, K., Bioorg. & Med. Chem. 1998, 6, 1233-1241.







109.     *Efficient Asymmetric Synthesis of (S)-2-Methylasparagine. Aoyagi, Y.; Williams, R.M., Syn. Lett. 1998, 1099-1101. [link]

108.     *Synthetic Studies on Tetrazomine: Assignment of Stereochemistry of the -Hydroxypipecolic Acid. Scott, J.D.; Tippie, T.N.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett. 1998, 39, 3659-3662.






107.     *General Asymmetric Synthesis of Hydroxymethylene and Hydroxyethylene Peptide Isosteres. Williams, R.M.; Aoyagi, Y., Tetrahedron (Symposium-in-Print), 1998, 54, 10419-10433.






106.      *Asymmetric Synthesis of Differentially Protected 2,7-Diaminosuberic Acid, A Ring-Closure Metathesis Approach. Williams, R.M.; Liu, J., J. Org. Chem., 1998, 63, 2130-2132.






105.      *FR-66979 Covalently Cross-Links the Binding Domain (BD) of the High Mobility Group I/Y(HMG I/Y) Proteins to DNA. Rajski, S.R., Rollins, S.B.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 2192-2193. [link]

104.      *Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of TAN-1057A/B Analogs. Williams, R.M.; Yuan, C.; Lee, V.J.; Chamberland, S., J. Antibiot., 1998, 51, 189-201. [link]

103.      *Biomimetic Diels-Alder Cyclizations for the Construction of the Brevianamide, Paraherquamide and VM55599 Ring Systems. Williams, R.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Sancenon, F., Marco, J.A.; Halligan, K.; J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1998, 120, 1090-1091. [link]

1997

102.     Biologically Active Compounds and Methods of Constructing and Using the Same. Greene, M.I.; Williams, W.V.; Weiner, D.B.; Cohen, J.A.; Kieber-Emmons, T.; Williams, R.M.; U.S. Patent No. 5,637,677, June 11, 1997. [link]

101.      *Total Synthesis of the Anti-MRSA Peptide Antibiotics TAN-1057A-D. Yuan, C.C.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1997, 119, 11,777-11,784.






100.      *An Efficient Synthesis of (S)-meta-Tyrosine. Bender, D.M.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem., 1997, 62, 6690-6691. [link]

99.     *Synthetic Studies on FR900482. Synthesis of a Photo-triggered Pro-Mitosene. Rollins, S.B.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett., 1997, 38, 4033-4036.






98.     *Biosynthesis of the Brevianamides: A Theoretical Study of the Biosynthetic Diels-Alder Cyclization. Domingo, L.R.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M.; Picher, M.T.; Marco, J.A., J. Org. Chem., 1997, 62, 1662-1667.






97.     *FR900482, a Close Cousin of Mitomycin C that Exploits Mitosene-Based Cross Linking. Williams, R.M.; Rajski, S.R.; Rollins, S.B., Chem. Biol., 1997, 4, 127-137. [link]

1996

96.      *Cytochrome P-450-Catalyzed Hydroxylation of Taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene to Taxa-4(20),11(12)-diene-5--ol: The First Oxygenation Step in Taxol Biosynthesis. Hefner, J.; Rubenstein, S.M.; Ketchum, R.E.B.; Gibson, D.M.; Williams, R.M., Croteau, R. Chem. Biol., 1996, 3, 479-489. [link]

95.     * Studies on the Total Synthesis of Paraherquamide A. Stereocontrolled, Asymmetric Synthesis of -Alkyl--Hydroxyproline Derivatives. Williams, R.M.; Cao, J., Tetrahedron Lett., 1996, 37, 5441-5444.






94.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Paraherquamide: Origin of the -Methylproline Ring. Stocking, E.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M.; Unkefer, C.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118, 7008-7009. [link]

Errata: J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1997, 119, 9588.

93.     *An Efficient Method for the Preparation of Amidinoureas. Williams, R.M.; Yuan, C., Tetrahedron Lett., 1996, 37, 1945-1948.






92.     *Photochemical Cycloaromatization Reactions of ortho-Dialkynylarenes. A New Class of DNA Photocleaving Agents. Funk, R.L.; Young, E.R.R.; Williams, R.M.; Flanagan, M.A.; Cecil, T.R., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118, 3291-3292. [link]

91.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of (2S,3S,6S)-, (2S,3S,6R)-, and (2R,3R,6S)-2,3-Methano-2,6-diaminopimelic Acids. Studies Directed to the Design of Novel Substrate-based Inhibitors of L,L-Diaminopimelate Epimerase. Williams, R.M.; Fegley, G.J.; Pruess, D.L.; Schaeffer, F., Tetrahedron, 1996, 52, 1149-1164.




90.     *Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (+)-Paraherquamide B. Cushing, T.D.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1996, 118, 557-579. [link]

89.      *Amino Acid Synthesis. Williams, R.M., The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Molecular Medicine, VCH, Weinheim, R.A. Meyers, Ed., 1996, Volume 1, pp 52-58.

1995

88.     Development of GM-CSF Antagonist Peptides. VonFeldt, J.M.; Monfardini, C.; Fish, S.; Rosenblum, H.; Kieber-Emmons, T.; Williams, R.M.; Kahn, S.A.; Weiner, D.B.; Williams, W.V., Pept. Res., 1995, 8, 20. [link]

87.      *Amino Acid Synthesis, Williams, R.M., Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. A Comprehensive Desk Reference. VCH, Weinheim, Meyers, R.A., Ed., 1995, Volume 1, pp 28-33.

86.     *Synthetic Studies on Quinocarcin: Total Synthesis of (+)-Quinocarcinamide via Dipole Cycloaddition of an Azomethine Ylide Generated by Novel NBS Oxidation. Flanagan, M.E.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem., 1995, 60, 6791-6797. [link]

85.     *Studies on the Biosynthesis of Taxol: Total Synthesis of Taxa-4(20),11(12)-diene and Taxa-4(5),11(12)-diene. The First Committed Biosynthetic Intermediate. Rubenstein, S.M.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem., 1995, 60, 7215-7223. [link]

84.      *Asymmetric Synthesis of -Amino Acids. Williams, R.M., Advances in Asymmetric Synthesis, JAI Press 1995, Volume 1 (pp 45-94) A. Hassner, Ed.

83.      *Netropsin and Spermine Conjugates of a Water-Soluble Quinocarcin Analog: Analysis of Sequence-Specific DNA Interactions. Flanagan, M.E.; Rollins, S.B.; Williams, R.M., Chem. Biol., 1995, 2, 147-156. [link]

1994

82.      *FR66979 Requires Reductive Activation to Cross-Link DNA Efficiently. Huang, H.; Rajski, S.R.; Williams, R.M.; Hopkins, P.B., Tetrahedron Lett., 1994, 35, 9669-9672.






81.     *A New Method for Hydroxymethylene Peptide Isostere Synthesis: Asymmetric Synthesis of Statine. Williams, R.M.; Colson, P-J.; Zhai, W., Tetrahedron Lett., 1994, 35, 9371-9374.






80.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of -D(L)-Glutamyl-L-meso-Diaminopimelic Acid Dipeptide. Williams, R.M.; Yuan, C., J. Org. Chem., 1994, 59, 6190-6193. [link]

79.     *O2-Dependent Cleavage of DNA by Tetrazomine. Williams, R.M.; Flanagan, M.E.; Tippie, T., Biochemistry, 1994, 33, 4086-4092. [link]

1993

78.     *Vinyl Glycine Derivatives for Memory and Learning Enhancement or Treatment of a Cognitive Disorder. Cordi, A.A.; Monahan, J.B.; Williams, R.M., U.S. Patent No. 5,208,260, May 4, 1993. [link]

77.      *Stereoselective Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry of Bicyclomycin. Williams, R.M., Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Atta-ur-Rahman, Editor, Elsevier Pub., 1993, Amsterdam, Vol. 12. [link]

76.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of 1S,2R-(+)-2-Phenyl-1-Aminocyclopropane-1-Carboxylic Acid. Williams, R.M.; Fegley, G.J., J. Org. Chem., 1993, 58, 6933-6935. [link]

75.     *Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (+)-Paraherquamide B. Cushing, T.D.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1993, 115, 9323-9324. [link]

74.      *Determination of DNA Cross-Linking Sequence Specificity of FR66979: Observations on the Mode of Action of the FR900482 Class of Anti-tumor Compounds. Williams, R.M.; Rajski, S.R., Tetrahedron Lett., 1993, 44, 7023-7026.






73.     *Biosynthesis of Brevianamides A and B: In Search of the Biosynthetic Diels-Alder Construction. Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Glinka, T.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron, 1993, 49, 8471-8482.






72.     *Biosynthesis of the Brevianamides: Quest for a Biosynthetic Diels-Alder Cyclization. Sanz-Cervera, J.-F.; Glinka, T.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1993, 115, 347-348. [link]

71.     *Total Synthesis of Aspirochlorine. Williams, R.M.; Miknis, G.F., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1993, 115, 536-547. [link]

1992

70.     Design of Bioactive Peptides Based on Immunoglobulin Structure. Greene, M.I.; Kieber-Emmons, T.; Weiner, D.; Williams, R.M.; Williams, W.V., WO 1992004914 A1, April 2, 1992.

69.     Design of Bioactive Peptides Based on Immunoglobulin Structure. Greene, M.I.; Kieber-Emmons, T.; Weiner, D.; Williams, R.M.; Williams, W.V., CA 2091258 A1, April 2, 1992.

68.      *Design and Synthesis of Biologically Active Peptide Mimics. Williams, R.M., The Development and Utilization of Biologically Active Peptides, Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA 1992, p. 187-215. [link]

67.     *Asymmetric [1,3]-Dipolar Cycloaddition Reactions: Synthesis of Highly Substituted Proline Derivatives. Williams, R.M.; Zhai, W.; Aldous, D.J.; Aldous, S.C., J. Org. Chem., 1992, 57, 6527-6532. [link]

66.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of S-(-)-Cucurbitine. Williams, R.M.; Fegley, G.J., Tetrahedron Lett., 1992, 33, 6755-6758.






65.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of 2,6-Diaminopimelic Acids. Williams, R.M.; Yuan, C., J. Org. Chem., 1992, 57, 6519-6527. [link]

64.     *DNA Cross-Linking Studies on FR-900482: Observations on the Mode of Activation. Williams, R.M.; Rajski, S.R., Tetrahedron Lett., 1992, 33, 2929-2932.






63.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of Arylglycines. Williams, R.M.; Hendrix, J.A., Chem. Rev., 1992, 92, 889-917. [link]

62.     *Preparation of 4-Methoxy-4'-nitrobiphenyl. Stille, J.K.; Echavarren, A.M.; Williams, R.M.; Hendrix, J.A., Org. Synth., 1992, 71, 97-106. [link]

61.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of -Amino Acids. Williams, R.M., Aldrichimica Acta, 1992, 25, 11-25.

60.     *Cannizzaro-Based O2-Dependent Cleavage of DNA by Quinocarcin. Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T.; Flanagan, M.E.; Gallegos, R.; Coffman, H.; Pei, D., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1992, 114, 733-740. [link]

1991

59.     *Cannizzaro-Based O2-Dependent Cleavage of DNA by Quinocarcin. Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T.; Flanagan, M.E.; Gallegos, R.; Coffman, H.; Pei, D., Advances in New Drug Development, The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea, Seoul 1991, 38-50.

58.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of Mono-Substituted and -Disubstituted -Amino Acids via Diastereoselective Glycine Enolate Alkylations. Williams, R.M.; Im, M-N., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 9276-9286. [link]

57.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of 1-Aminocyclopropane Carboxylic Acid Derivatives. Williams, R.M.; Fegley, G.J., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 8796-8806. [link]

56.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of 2,6-Diamino-6-hydroxymethylpimelic Acid: Assignment of Stereochemistry. Williams, R.M.; Im, M-N.; Cao, J., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 6976-6981. [link]

55.     *Novel Ring Contractions via 2,3-Wittig Rearrangements: Synthesis of (2-Desoxy)-2-Methylene Bicyclomycin. Williams, R.M.; Sabol, M.R.; Kim, H.; Kwast, A., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1991, 113, 6621-6633. [link]

54.     *Synthesis of Tri-Substituted Furans: Mild Ti(IV)-Mediated Couplings to Acetals. Construction of the Epoxy Hemi-Amido Ketal of Fusarin C. Williams, R.M.; Esslinger, C.S., Tetrahedron Lett., 1991, 32, 3635-3638.






53.     *Synthesis, Conformation, Crystal Structures and DNA Cleavage Abilities of Tetracyclic Analogs of Quinocarcin. Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T.; Gallegos, R.; Ehrlich, P.; Flanagan, M.E.; Coffman, H.; Park, G., Tetrahedron (Symposium-in-Print), 1991, 47, 2629-2642.






52.     ∫Highly Stereoselective Synthesis of Conjugated E,E- and E,Z-Dienes, E-Enynes and E-1,2,3-Butatrienes via Alkenylborane Derivatives. Negishi, E.; Yoshida, T.; Abramovitch, A.; Lew, G.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron, 1991, 47, 343-356.






1990

51.     *Identification of a Novel Structural Class of Positive Modulators of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor, Whose Actions are Mediated Through the Glycine Recognition Site. Monahan, J.B.; Hood, W.F.; Compton, R.P.; Cordi, A.A.; Williams, R.M., Eur. J. Pharmacol., 1990, 189, 373-379. [link]

50.     *Synthetic Studies on Paraherquamide: Synthesis of the 2H-1,5-Benzodioxepin Ring System. Williams, R.M.; Cushing, T.D., Tetrahedron Lett., 1990, 31, 6325-6328.






49.     *Synthetic Studies on Aspirochlorine (A30641). Williams, R.M.; Miknis, G.F., Tetrahedron Lett., 1990, 31, 4297-4300.






48.     *General Synthesis of -Alkynylglycine Derivatives. Williams, R.M.; Aldous, D.J.; Aldous, S.C., J. Org. Chem., 1990, 55, 4657-4663. [link]

47.     *Asymmetric, Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (-)-Brevianamide B. Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T.; Kwast, E.; Coffman, H.; Stille, J.K., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1990, 112, 808-821. [link]

46.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of Arylglycines. Williams, R.M.; Hendrix, J.A., J. Org. Chem., 1990, 55, 3723-3728. [link]     

45.     *Synthesis of Ethynylglycine (FR900130). Williams, R.M.;Aldous, D.J.; Aldous, S.C., J. Chem. Soc. Perkin Trans I Comm., 1990, 171-172. [link]

1989

44.      *Synthesis of Optically Active ull α-Amino Acids, Williams, R.M., Pergamon Press, 1989, Oxford, (Organic Chemistry Series, Baldwin, J.E., Series Editor). 410 pp.

43.     *Synthetic Studies on Paraherquamide: Regioselectivity of Indole Oxidation. Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T.; Kwast, E., Tetrahedron Lett., 1989, 30, 5575-5578.






42.     *Synthetic studies on FR900482: Promising Method to Construct the Bicyclic Hydroxylamine Hemi-Ketal Ring System. Yasuda, N.; Williams, R.M., Tetrahedron Lett., 1989, 30, 3397-3400.






41.     *Remarkable, Enantio-Divergent Biogenesis of Brevianamide A and B. Williams, R.M.; Kwast, E.; Coffman, H.; Glinka, T., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 3064-3065. [link]

40.     *Carbanion-Mediated Oxidative Deprotection of Non-Enolizable Benzylated Amides. Williams, R.M.; Kwast, E., Tetrahedron Lett., 1989, 30, 451-454.






39.     *Synthesis and X-Ray Crystal Structure Determination of 1,3-Bridged-Lactams: Novel, Anti-Bredt -Lactams. Williams, R.M.; Lee, B.H.; Miller, S.; Anderson, O.P., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1989, 111, 1073-1081. [link]

1988

38.     *Synthesis and X-Ray Crystal Structure Determination of 1,3-Bridged -Lactams: Novel, Anti-Bredt -Lactams. Williams, R.M.; Lee, B-H.; Miller, M.M.; Anderson, O.P., in Recent Advances in the Chemistry of -Lactam Antibiotics, Royal Society of Chemistry, London 1988 pp. 106-118.

37.     *Facial Selectivity of the Intramolecular SN2' Cyclization: Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of Brevianamide B. Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T.; Kwast, E., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 5927-5929. [link]

36.     *Versatile, stereocontrolled, Asymmetric Synthesis of E-Vinylglycine Derivatives. Williams, R.M.; Zhai, W., Tetrahedron, 1988, 44, 5425-5430.

35.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of -Amino Acids: Comparison of Enolate vs Cation Functionalization of N-BOC-5,6-Diphenyl-2,3,5,6-tetrahydro-4H-1,4-oxazin-2-ones. Williams, R.M.; Im, M-N., Tetrahedron Lett., 1988, 29, 6075-6078. [link]

34.     *Versatile New Approach to the Synthesis of Monosubstituted and Bicyclic Piperazine-2,5-diones: Unusual in situ Generation and Enolate Addition to a Cumulene. Williams, R.M.; Kwast, A., J. Org. Chem., 1988, 53, 5785-5787. [link]     

33.     *Synthesis of Verruculotoxin. Williams, R.M.; Brunner, E.J.; Sabol, M.R., Synthesis, 1988, 963-966. [link]

32.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of -Carboxy Aspartic Acid (Asa). Williams, R.M.; Sinclair, P.J.; Zhai, W., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 482-483. [link]

31.     *Bicyclomycin: Synthetic, Mechanistic and Biological Studies. Williams, R.M.; Durham, C.A., Chemical Reviews, 1988, 88, 511-540. [link]

30.     *Practical Asymmetric Synthesis of -Amino Acids through Carbon-Carbon Bond Constructions on Electrophilic Glycine Templates. Williams, R.M.; Sinclair, P.J.; Zhai, D.; Chen, D., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 1547-1557. [link]

29.     *Alkynylation of Mixed Haloacetals with Organotin Acetylides. Zhai, D.; Zhai, W.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1988, 110, 2501-2505. [link]

1987

28.     *Synthesis of Functionalized Bicyclic Dioxopiperazines via Intramolecular Epoxide Opening. Williams, R.M.; Maruyama, L.K., J. Org. Chem., 1987, 52, 4044-4047. [link]

27.     *Mechanism, Biological Relevance and Structural Requirements for Thiolate Additions to Bicyclomycin and Analogues: A Unique Latent Michael Acceptor System. Williams, R.M.; Tomizawa, K.; Armstrong, R.W.; Dung, J-S., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1987, 109, 4028-4035. [link]

26.     *A New Synthetic Approach to 1-Hydroxymethyl-8-methoxy-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-isoquinolin-4-one. Williams, R.M.; Zhai, W.; Ehrlich, P.P.; Hendrix, J., J. Org. Chem., 1987, 52, 2615-2617. [link]

1986

25.     *Synthesis of a Bicyclo[4.1.1] ull β-Lactam: A Novel, Anti-Bredt -Lactam. Williams, R.M.; Lee, B., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1986, 108, 6431-6433. [link]

24.     *Asymmetric Synthesis of (R)- and (S)-[2-2H1]-Glycine. Williams, R.M.; Zhai, D.; Sinclair, P.J., J. Org. Chem., 1986, 51, 5021-5022. [link]

23.     *Promising Cyclization Reactions to Construct the Ring Systems of Brevianamides A,B. Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T., Tetrahedron Lett., 1986, 27, 3581-3584.






22.     *Electrophilic Glycinates: New and Versatile Templates for Asymmetric Amino Acid Synthesis. Sinclair, P.J.; Zhai, D.; Reibenspies, J.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1986, 108, 1103-1104. [link]

1985

21.     *Thiolate Additions to Bicyclomycin and Analogues: A Structurally Novel Latent Michael-Acceptor System. Williams, R.M.; Tomizawa, K.; Armstrong, R.W.; Dung, J-S., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 6419-6421. [link]

20.     *C-Glycosidation of Pyridyl Thioglycosides. Stewart, A.O.; Williams, R.M., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 4289-4296. [link]

19.     *Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (±)- and (+)-Bicyclomycin. Williams, R.M.; Armstrong, R.W.; Dung, J-S., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 3253-3266. [link]

18.     *A Divergent Generalized Synthesis of Unsymmetrically Substituted 2,5-Piperazinediones. Williams, R.M.; Armstrong, R.W.; Maruyama, L.K.; Dung, J-S.; Anderson, O.P., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1985, 107, 3246-3253. [link]

17.     *Unusual Bridgehead Hydroxylations via Selenoxides:  Evidence for Bridgehead Carbocations. Williams, R.M.; Dung, J-S., Tetrahedron Lett., 1985, 26, 37-38. [link]

16.     *Synthesis and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Bicyclomycin Analogs. Williams, R.M.; Armstrong, R.W.; Dung, J-S., J. Med. Chem., 1985, 28, 733-740. [link]

1984

15.     *Stereocontrolled Total Synthesis of (±)- and (+)-Bicyclomycin: New Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Reactions on Electrophilic Glycine Anhydride Derivatives. Williams, R.M.; Armstrong, R.W.; Dung, J-S., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1984, 106, 5748-5750. [link]

14.     *Alternate Preparation of Methyl-3-amino-2,3,6-trideoxy--D-arabino-hexopyranoside and Chiral Intermediates for the Synthesis of Thienamycin. Stewart, A.O.; Williams, R.M., Carbohydrate Res., 1984, 135, 167-173. [link]

13.     *Metal-Mediated Concomitant Silyl Ether Cleavage/Cyclization Reactions to Construct Bicyclic Piperazinediones and a New Polymer-Supported Hg(II) Perchlorate. Dung, J-S.; Armstrong, R.W.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem., 1984, 49, 3416-3419. [link]

1983

12.     *Improved Synthesis and Absolute Configuration of (+)- and (-)-2,2,4-Trimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-carboxaldehyde. Dung, J-S.; Armstrong, R.W.; Anderson, O.P.; Williams, R.M., J. Org. Chem., 1983, 48, 3592-3594. [link]

11.     *Regioselective Functionalization of Bicyclic Piperazinedione Bridgehead Carbanions. Williams, R.M.; Dung, J-S.; Josey, J.; Armstrong, R.W.; Meyers, H., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1983, 105, 3214-3220. [link]

10.     *C-Glycosidation of Pyridyl Thioglycosides. Williams, R.M.; Stewart, A.O., Tetrahedron Lett., 1983, 24, 2715-2718. [link]

1982

9.     *A New and Efficient Cyclization Reaction to Construct the Bicyclomycin Ring System: Synthesis of N,N'-Dimethyl-4-des-methylene Bicyclomycin, Williams, R.M.; Anderson, O.P.; Armstrong, R.; Josey, J.; Meyers, H.; Eriksson, C., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1982, 104, 6092-6099. [link]

1981

8.     *Bicyclomycin Synthetic Studies:  Utilization of Bridgehead Carbanions, Williams, R. M., Tetrahedron Lett., 1981, 22, 2341-2344. [link]

7.     § Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Erythromycin III, Woodward, R.B.; Logusch, E.; Nambiar, K.P.; Sakan, K.; Ward, D.E.; Au-Yeung, B.W.; Balaram, P.; Browne, L.J.; Card, P.J.; Chen, C.H.; Chenevert, R.B.; Fliri, A.; Frobel, K.; Gais, H.J.; Garratt, D.G.; Hayakawa, K.; Heggie, W.; Hesson, D.P.; Hoppe, D.; Hoppe, I.; Hyatt, J.A.; Ikeda, D.; Jacobi, P.A.; Kim, K.S.; Kobuke, Y.; Kojima, K.; Krowicki, K.; Lee, V.J.; Leubert, T.; Malchenko, S.; Martens, J.; Mathews, R.S.; Ong, B.S.; Press, J.B.; RajanBabu, T.V.; Rousseau, G.; Sauter, H.M.; Suzuki, M.; Tatsuta, K.; Tolbert, L.M.; Truesdale, E.A.; Uchida, I.; Ueda, Y.; Uyehara, T.; Vasella, A.T.; Vladuchick, W.C.; Wade, P.A.; Williams, R.M.; Wong, H.N.-C., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 3215-3217. [link]

6.     § Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Erythromycin II, Woodward, R.B.; Logusch, E.; Nambiar, K.P.; Sakan, K.; Ward, D.E.; Au-Yeung, B.W.; Balaram, P.; Browne, L.J.; Card, P.J.; Chen, C.H.; Chenevert, A.; Fliri, A.; Frobel, K.; Gais, H.J.; Garratt, D.G.; Hayakawa, K.; Heggie, W.; Hesson, D.P.; Hoppe, D.; Hoppe, I.; Hyatt, J.A.; Ikeda, D.; Jacobi, P.A.; Kim, K.S.; Kobuke, Y.; Kojima, K.; Krowicki, K.; Lee, V.J.; Leubert, T.; Malchenko, S.; Martens, J.; Mathews, R.S.; Ong, B.S.; Press, J.B.; RajanBabu, T.V.; Rousseau, G.; Sauter, H.M.; Suzuki, M.; Tatsuta, K.; Tolbert, L.M.; Truesdale, E.A.; Uchida, I.; Ueda, Y.; Uyehara, T.; Vasella, A.T.; Vladuchick, W.C.; Wade, P.A.; Williams, R.M.; Wong, H.N.-C., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 3213-3215. [link]

5.     § Asymmetric Total Synthesis of Erythromycin I, Woodward, R.B.; Logusch, E.; Nambiar, K.P.; Sakan, K.; Ward, D.E.; Au-Yeung, B.W.; Balaram, P.; Browne, L.J.; Card, P.J.; Chen, C.H.; Chenevert, R.B.; Fliri, A.; Frobel, K.; Gais, H.J.; Garratt, D.G.; Hayakawa, K.; Heggie, W.; Hesson, D.P.; Hoppe, D.; Hoppe, I.; Hyatt, J.A.; Ikeda, D.; Jacobi, P.A.; Kim, K.S.; Kobuke, Y.; Kojima, K.; Krowicki, K.; Lee, V.J.; Leubert, T.; Malchenko, S.; Martens, J.; Mathews, R.S.; Ong, B.S.; Press, J.B.; RajanBabu, T.V.; Rousseau, G.; Sauter, H.M.; Suzuki, M.; Tatsuta, K.; Tolbert, L.M.; Truesdale, E.A.; Uchida, I.; Ueda, Y.; Uyehara, T.; Vasella, A.T.; Vladuchick, W.C.; Wade, P.A.; Williams, R.M.; Wong, H.N.-C. J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1981, 103, 3210-3213. [link]

4.     ¶ Synthesis of the Fungal Metabolites (±)-Gliovictin and (±)-Hyalodendrin, Williams, R.M.; Rastetter, W.H., J. Org. Chem., 1980, 45, 2625-2631. [link]

3.     ¶ An Efficient Synthesis of d,l-Gliovictin: Construction of the Hydroxymethyl Moiety via a 3-Formyl-2,5-Piperazinedione, Williams, R.M.; Rastetter, W.H., Tetrahedron Lett., 1979, 1187-1190. [link]

2.     ∫ A Stereoselective Synthesis of cis-Alkenylboranes, Negishi, E-i.; Williams, R.M.; Lew, G.; Yoshida, T., J. Organomet. Chem., 1975, 92, C4-C6. [link]

1.     ∫ A Stereoselective Synthesis of Partially Substituted 1,2,3-Butatriene Derivatives via Hydroboration, Yoshida, T.; Williams, R.M.; Negishi, E-i., J. Am. Chem. Soc., 1974, 96, 3688-3690. [link]



∫  Syracuse University

¶  MIT

§  Harvard University

*Colorado State University



Books and Monographs:

(1) Synthesis of Optically Active -Amino Acids, Robert M. Williams, Pergamon Press, 1989, Oxford, (The Organic Chemistry Series, J.E. Baldwin, Series Editor). 410 pp.

(2) Organic & Biological Chemistry (undergraduate textbook, under contract).

(3) Biosynthesis of Primary and Secondary Metabolites (in preparation).

Chapters:

1.      Biomimetic Synthesis of Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan: Dioxopiperazine Alkaloids. Welch. T.; Williams, R.M., chapter in Biomimetic Organic Synthesis, Wiley-VCH, Poupon, E.; Nay, B., Editors. 2011, 1, 117-148.

2.     New Tricks in Amino Acid Synthesis: Applications to Complex Natural Products. ACS Symposium Book Series. Soloshonok, V.A.; Izawa, K., Eds., American Chemical Society, Washington, D.C., Burnett, C.; Williams, R.M. 2009, Chapter 26, 420-442.

3.     Diphenyloxazinones: Versatile Templates for the Asymmetric Synthesis of Amino Acids, Peptide Isosteres and Natural Products. Burnett, C.; Williams, R.M., Strategies and Tactics in Organic Synthesis 2008 Vol.7, Chapter 8, pp 268-327.

4.      Biosynthesis of Prenylated Alkaloids Derived from Tryptophan. Williams, R.M.; Sanz-Cervera, J.F.; Stocking, E., in Topics in Current Chemistry, Volume on Biosynthesis-Terpenes and Alkaloids, Leeper, F.; Vederas, J.C., Eds., Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 2000, 209, 97-173.

5.     Asymmetric Syntheses of Unnatural Amino Acids and Hydroxyethylene Peptide Isosteres, Williams, R.M., Humana Press, Peptidomimetics Protocols, Kazmierski, W., Ed., Totowa, 1999, Chapter 19, pp. 339-356.

6.      Amino Acid Synthesis, Williams, R.M., The Encyclopedia of Molecular Biology and Molecular Medicine, VCH, Weinheim, Meyers, R.A., Ed., Volume 1, pp 52-58, 1996.

7.      Asymmetric Synthesis of -Amino Acids, Williams, R.M., Advances in Asymmetric Synthesis, JAI Press Volume 1 (pp 45-94) A. Hassner, Ed., 1995.

8.     Amino Acid Synthesis, Williams, R.M., Molecular Biology and Biotechnology. A Comprehensive Desk Reference, VCH, Weinheim, Meyers, R.A., Ed., Volume 1, pp 28-33, 1995.

9.     Stereoselective Synthetic and Mechanistic Chemistry of Bicyclomycin, Williams, R.M., Studies in Natural Products Chemistry, Atta-ur-Rahman, Editor, Elsevier Pub., Amsterdam, Vol. 12, 1993.

10.     Design and Synthesis of Biologically Active Peptide Mimics, Williams, R.M., The Development and Utilization of Biologically Active Peptides, Technomic Publishing Co., Lancaster, PA, 1992, p. 187-215.

11.      Cannizzaro-Based O2-Dependent Cleavage of DNA by Quinocarcin, Williams, R.M.; Glinka, T.; Flanagan, M.E.; Gallegos, R.; Coffman, H.; Pei, D. Advances in New Drug Development, 1991, p.38-51, The Pharmaceutical Society of Korea, Seoul.

12.      Synthesis and X-Ray Crystal Structure Determination of 1,3-Bridged -Lactams: Novel, Anti-Bredt -Lactams. in Recent Advances in the Chemistry of -Lactam Antibiotics, Williams, R.M.; Lee, B-H.; Miller, M.M.; Anderson, O.P. Royal Society of Chemistry, London 1988 p. 106.

Patents and Published Patent Applications

(1) Design of Bioactive Peptides Based on Immunoglobulin Structure. Greene, M.I.; Kieber-Emmons, T.; Weiner, D.; Williams, R.M.; Williams, W.V., CA 2091258 A1, April 2, 1992.

(2) Design of Bioactive Peptides Based on Immunoglobulin Structure. Greene, M.I.; Kieber-Emmons, T.; Weiner, D.; Williams, R.M.; Williams, W.V., WO 1992004914 A1, April 2, 1992.

(3) Vinyl Glycine Derivatives for Memory and Learning Enhancement or Treatment of a Cognitive Disorder, A.A. Cordi, J.B. Monahan and R.M. Williams; U.S. Patent No. 5,208,260, May 4, 1993.

(4) Biologically Active Compounds and Methods of Constructing and Using the Same; Greene, Mark I.; Williams, William V.; Weiner, David B.; Cohen, Jeffrey A.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Williams, Robert M.; U.S. Patent No. 5,637,677, June 10, 1997.

(5) Antibiotic for Methicillin Resistant Bacteria. R.M. Williams and C. Yuan ; U.S. Patent No. 6,110,925, August 29, 2000.

(6) Antibiotic for Methicillin Resistant Bacteria. R.M. Williams and C. Yuan ; U.S. Patent No. 6,162,925, December 19, 2000.

(7) Biologically Active Compounds and Methods of Constructing and Using the Same; Greene, Mark I.; Williams, William V.; Weiner, David B.; Cohen, Jeffrey A.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Williams, Robert M.; U.S. Patent No. 6,372,884 B1, April 16, 2002.

(8) Design of Bioactive Peptides Based on Immunoglobulin Structure. Williams, William V.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Williams, Robert M.; Weiner, David B.; Greene, Mark I.; EP 0551440B1, December 18, 2002.

(9) Design of Bioactive Peptides Based on Immunoglobulin Structure. Weiner, David B.; Williams, Robert M.; Kieber-Emmons, Thomas; Williams, William V.; Greene, Mark I.; EP 1310557A1, May 14, 2003.

(10) Chiral Lactones. Onishi, T.; Williams, R.M. U.S. Patent No. 7,173,141 B2, February 6, 2007.

(11) Method for Preparing Largazole Analogs and Uses Thereof. Williams, R.M.; Bradner, J.E.; Bowers, A.; Newkirk, T., WO 2010009334 A1, January 21, 2010.

(12) Methods for Preparing Largazole Analogs and Uses Thereof. Williams, R.M.; Bradner, J.E.; Bowers, A.; Newkirk, T., U.S. Patent No. 8,217,076 B2, July 10, 2012.

(13) A Biosynthetic Pathway for Heterologous Expression of an Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Drug and Analogs. Sherman, D.H.; Ehrlich, G.D.; Janto, B.; Williams, R.M.; Rath, C.M., PCT 13/640,815, April 18, 2013.

(14) Method for Preparing Largazole Analogs and Uses Thereof. Williams, R.M.; Bradner, J.E.; Bowers, A.; Newkirk, T., Wiest, O.G., U.S. Patent No. 8,513,290 B2, August 20, 2013.

(15) Biosynthetic Systems Producing Fungal Indole Alkaloids. Li, S.; Anand Srinivasan, K.; Williams, R.M.; Sherman, D.H., PCT/US/2013/03513, October 10, 2013.

(16) Biosynthetic Pathway for Heterologous Expression of a Nonribosomal Peptide Synthetase Drug and Analogs. Sherman, D.H.; Ehrlich, G.D.; Janto, B.; Williams, R.M.; Rath, C.M. U.S. Patent No. 8,815,562 B2, August 26, 2014.

News Coverage of Published Work:

1. “Natural Products from Symbionts” Nature Biotechnology, (Kathy Aschheim) Published 9 January, 2012. Nature Biotechnology 2012, 30, 60 doi:10.1038/nbt.2103 (covering ACS Chem. Biol. 2011, 6, 1244–1256) (http://www.nature.com/nbt/journal/v30/n1/full/nbt.2103.html)

2. “Woodward's Unfinished Work” Chemical & Engineering News, (Bethany Halford) May 30, 2011, Volume 89 (No.22) pages 46-49 (covering Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 6771-6797)

3. “Nobel Prize Winner's Unfinished Symphony” Science Daily, August 1, 2011 (covering Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 6771-6797) http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110801111526.htm

4. “Nobel Prize Winner's Unfinished Symphony. Family Archives Provide Fascinating Insight into R.B. Woodward's Work on Organic Superconductors.” Eureka Alert (Philippe Terheggen) August 1, 2011 (covering Tetrahedron 2011, 67, 6771-6797)

5. “Alkaloid Biogenesis: Natural Selection” (Stephen Davey) Nature Chemistry, Published online: 24 April 2008 doi:10.1038/nchem.2008.3 (covering Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 3573-3577).

6. “Quinine Steps Back in Time” (Philip Ball) Nature, 2008, 451, 1065-1066 (History of Science covering Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 1736-1740).

7. “Quinine Quest”, Chemical & Engineering News, (Bethany Halford) February 4, 2008, Volume 86 (No. 5) page 8 (News of the Week covering Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 1736-1740). (http://pubs.acs.org/cen/news/86/i05/8605notw4.html)

8. “Air to the Rescue”, Science, February 22, 2008, (JSY) Vol. 319, pg. 1013 (Editor's Choice covering Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2008, 47, 1736-1740). (http://www.sciencemag.org/content/vol319/issue5866/twil.dtl#319/5866/1013a)

9. “A tonic for quinine chemistry. 1940s re-enactment helps to verify old chemical claim.” (Katharine Sanderson) News@Nature (February 4, 2008). (http://www.nature.com/news/2008/080204/full/news.2008.554.html)

10. “Quinine synthesis mystery solved”. Chemistry World, RSC, February 5, 2008, Henry Nicholls (http://www.rsc.org/chemistryworld/News/2008/February/05020801.asp)

11. “Disputed total synthesis of quinine by Woodward and Doering confirmed.” Physorg.com, January 31, 2008 (http://www.physorg.com/news120993858.html)

12. “Not A Myth: Quinine Synthesis In The Lab Using Old Methods Confirmed” Scientific Blogging, February 3, 2008. (http://www.scientificblogging.com/news_releases/not_a_myth_quinine_synthesis_in_the_lab_using_old_methods_confirmed)

13. “They Were Right After All: Disputed Total Synthesis of Quinine by Woodward and Doering Confirmed.” Eureka Alert, January 31, 2008 (http://www.eurekalert.org/pub_releases/2008-01/w-twr013108.php)

14. “Directions For Quinine Synthesis From 1945 Work When Slightly Aged Aluminum Powder Is Used.” ScienceDaily, January 31, 2008. (http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2008/01/080131111817.htm)

15. “Quinine, Definitely…” Totallysynthetic.com. (http://totallysynthetic.com/blog/?p=838)

16. “New Routes to Antitumor Antibiotics”, Chemical & Engineering News, December 16, 2002, page 32 (Highlights of Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. Engl. 2002, 41, 4683-4685).

17. "Key Step in Taxol Biosynthesis Revealed", Chemical & Engineering News, December 11, 2000, Stu Borman (Highlights of Chem. Biol. 2000, 7, 969-977).

18. "Researchers Probe Steps of Taxol Biosynthesis" Chemical & Engineering News, July 1, 1996, Stu Borman, (Highlights of Chem. Biol., 1996, 3, 479-489).


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